Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that reflects a deficiency in the processing of the distinctive linguistic units, called phonemes, which make up all spoken and written words. A dyslexic child, who is usually bright, has a difficulty in segmenting the written word into its underlying phonological components.
People with Dyslexia have difficulty in phonological awareness, verbal memory, rapid serial memory and verbal processing speed.
MYTHS ABOUT DYSLEXIA
1. Mirror writing is a symptom of dyslexia.
In fact, backwards writing and reversals of letters and words are common in the early stages of writing development among dyslexic and nondyslexic children alike. Dyslexic children have problems in naming letters but not in copying letters.
2. More boys than girls are dyslexic.
Boys’ reading disabilities are indeed identified more often than girls’, but studies indicate that such identification is biased. The actual prevalence of the disorder is nearly identical in the two sexes.
3. Dyslexia can be outgrown.
Yearly monitoring of phonological skills from first through 12th grade shows that the disability persists into adulthood. Even though people with dyslexia learn to read accurately, they continue to read slowly and not automatically.
4. Smart people cannot be dyslexic.
Intelligence is no way related to phonological processing, as scores of brilliant and accomplished dyslexics—among them William Butler Yeats, Albert Einstein and John Irving—attest.